Photo of a European Zebra Mussel
European Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

The Zebra Mussel has become one of the most devastating and costly of the non-indigenous mollusk's invasions into US waters. Since its spread throughout the freshwater waterways in the eastern US (coming from European ballast water in shipping), densities have been reported as high as 700,000 per square meter. They form like a rock onto water intake pipes, water filtration and electric generating plants. An estimated $3 billion is spent annually for control and cleaning of zebra mussels.

A few of the many Zebra Mussel infested applications include:

  • Drinking water treatment facilities
  • Electric power generation facilities
  • Fish hatcheries and aquaculture facilities
  • Golf courses
  • Impoundments and reservoirs
  • Industries
  • Institutions (hospitals, colleges, etc.)
  • Marinas
  • National scenic riverways
  • Navigation locks
  • Public agencies
  • Recreational facilities
  • Shipping and navigation

The damage that they are creating has never seen a parallel in regards to clogging intakes and now the shutting down of entire factories, powerhouses, and city water supplies.

Solutions To The Problem

In 1990 Ener-Tec, Inc. began a research project that today offers a non-chemical solution to Zebra Mussel control. Through on-site case studies at factories, such as United States Steel Co., and research studies at Purdue University and the Department of Natural Resources, Ener-Tec has proven that the Linear Kinetic Cell does effectively control Zebra Mussel Infestation. With an LKC unit installed they are not able to develop a shell. The existing shell also dissolves and they die from exposure. Most important, baby zebra mussels cannot form a shell and die. In addition to eliminating zebra mussels, you will also incur several other time and money saving benefits by using the LKC. 


Linear Kinetic Cells are available for out of water or underwater installations.

Principles of Operation

The biological effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetism are well documented. ELF magnetism affects the binding and transport of ions such as calcium within the cells and tissue. The physical mechanisms of ELF magnetism with living tissues is the induction of weak electrical currents which influences proper cellular function in Zebra Mussels. For the mussels, exposure to electromagnetically charged water increases calcium loss at a greater rate than the mussels can absorb calcium, resulting in a net loss of this important mineral. ELF magnetism inhibits the ability for Zebra Mussels to assimilate calcium. Theoretically, closed-shell molecules such as water have all their electrons paired and consequently, these substances do not behave like a magnetic substance such as iron. However, a magnetic field does distort the electron density distribution of electrons of molecules like water. This will make water a better solvent for substances like calcium carbonate by increasing the bonding between water and the calcium such that the Zebra Mussel can no longer sense the mineral. This accounts for the net calcium loss.


Chemical treatment requires continuous monitoring, adjusting feed, servicing of feed equipment, handling, and extensive water testing required to maintain proper water chemistry.


The LKC System requires little room for installation since the entire cell is placed directly into the water line, requiring only electrical service.

Continuous Treatment

The LKC system operates automatically, 24 hours a day with no assistance or monitoring.


You can normally own an LKC System for less than it costs to operate a chemical system for one year.

Places to use

The LKC System for Zebra Mussel control can be used in any water system. The places of use range from up to 24" main water intakes, to actually putting the cell into a process water pipe line as small as ½”. The LKC System works in any size water system no matter what the size. Each system is designed to fit the need.


Safety is the most feared part of using chemical treatment in water systems. There have been many cases of severely burned hands, arms, and faces of persons handling chemicals.

The LKC System requires no chemicals.

OEM Services

Ener-Tec, Inc. maintains a qualified engineering staff experienced in assisting staff engineers in solving their Zebra Mussel problems.

Companies Trust Ener-Tec to Keep Their Pipes Scale Free

  • Inland Steel
  • LTV Steel
  • Amp Corp.
  • Ebco Metal Finishing
  • Racine Plating
  • Plastics Engineering
  • Asama Foundry
  • Tyco
  • Martin Engineering
  • Viam
  • Koch Materials
  • U.S. Gypsum Co.
  • Braddock Heat Treat
  • Dalton Corp.
  • Cryovac
  • Oxford Automotive
  • Plus thousands more
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