Dr. Robert A. Brizzolara
Naval Surface Warfare Center
Carderock Division
9500 MacArthur Blvd
West Bethesda, MD 20817
25 October, 2000
Mr. Larry Shroyer
Ener-Tec, Inc.
P.O. Box 85
Union City, MI 49094

Dear Larry, Thank you very much for providing a loaner Ener-Tec device for our Summer, 2000 field test. This letter describes last summer’s field test of Ener-Tec Inc’s biofouling control device and gives the biomass results from the Ener-Tec test line.

1. Ener-Tec Device and Test Line

The Ener-Tec device produces a DC magnetic field in the range of 100-200 Gauss. It consists of a unit containing the magnet that is less than 1 foot long that mounts over the titanium tube to be protected. There is also a small control unit that is mounted nearby.

2. Test Setup

The field test was performed at the NSWCCD Marine Corrosion Test Facility in Dania, FL. The test lines were fed by coastal seawater drawn from the mouth of the Port Everglades shipping channel. The system was fed by a two-stage pumping system. The first stage was a Pacer model SE2ELNC2.OC pump (total dynamic head of 30 psi and maximum flow of 110 gpm) which drew from the Intracoastal Waterway Inlet, approximately 50 yards upstream from its exit to the Atlantic Ocean. This pump fed into a 1500-gallon plastic tank. The second stage pump for all but the chlorinated test line was a Hayward Model SP2621X25 pump (maximum total dynamic head of 30 psi and maximum flow rate of 95 gpm) which also drew from the tank and fed a 2” PVC manifold to which the test lines were connected. The second stage pump for the chlorinated test line was a Hayward Model SP2610X15 pump (maximum total dynamic head of 40 psi and maximum flow rate of 100 gpm) which drew from the tank and fed a 2” PVC manifold to which the chlorinated test line was connected.

Each test line consisted of an approximately 8’ long piece of 5/8” diameter titanium tube connected to the supply manifold by a hose. In addition to the Ener-Tec test line, there was an untreated control test line, a test line that was treated with 200 ppb of chlorine for 2 hours a day followed by an 8 ft/sec flush for 15 minutes, and a test line treated with an ultraviolet unit. The chlorinated and UV test lines were included to provide a comparison of the effectiveness of the Ener-Tec device with alternative methods for biofouling control. The UV unit was an Aquafine model RBE-SL1 rated at 10 gpm for freshwater. Due to the turbidity of the Ft. Lauderdale seawater, it was expected that the effectiveness of the UV unit would be fairly limited. The interior of the titanium tubes was washed with bleach prior to the beginning of the test to remove adventitious material. During the test, seawater flowed through the tubes continuously. The flow rate was set to 1.8 ft/s in all test lines and was readjusted once a day on each line. The flow rate of 1.8 ft/s was chosen to match that used in previous chlorine minimization tests conducted by NSWC. The Ener-Tec device ran continuously until August 23, 2000, at which time the test was shut off.

3. Biomass Measurements

On August 23, the sea water flow was terminated and the titanium tubes sectioned into approximately 1’ long sections. The tubes were stored wet, in a refrigerator, until biomass measurements were performed approximately 2 weeks later. Biomass measurements were performed as follows. Each tube section was rinsed gently with water. Loosely bound material that was washed out of the tubes was collected, dried and weighed. The rinsed tubes were dried at 105 oC overnight and weighed. Each tube was then swabbed gently with a test tube brush under flowing water to remove all remaining biological material from its interior. The tube was then weighed again. The weight difference before and after swabbing gives the mass of biological material that was strongly bound to the tube. The sum of the loosely bound and strongly bound material was normalized to the tube inside surface area. The biomasses for each 1’ tube section were averaged and are reported in the Table below.

4. Biomass Results

Test Line Average Biomass (mg/cm2)
Untreated Control 1.360.06
Chlorinated 0.0130.004
Ener-Tec Device (LKC) 0.710.07
Ultraviolet 0.840.03

The biomass results are given in the Table for the untreated control titanium tube, the chlorinated titanium tube, the UV tube and the Ener-Tec titanium tube. The error bars are standard deviations of the mean of the biomass values of the tube sections from a given test line.

5. Conclusion and Recommendation

The titanium tube on which the Ener-Tec resonator was mounted appears to be somewhat cleaner than the control titanium tube. However, the biomass difference between the two tubes is likely less than the error bars on the measurement, as would be determined by running replicates. Therefore, I recommend that the Ener-Tec device be tested again in the same or similar test format in the NSWC Summer, 2001 field test in Ft. Lauderdale, FL. This additional test will provide us more data to assess the significance of the result given above. Please let me know if you would be interested in again providing a loaner Ener-Tec device for this field test. I would expect the test to begin approximately late April or early May of 2001.

Robert A. Brizzolara


Linear Kinetic Cells are available for out of water or underwater installations. Many sizes are in stock and ready for immediate shipment. Those that are not in stock will generally have approximately a one week shipment time.


Chemical treatment requires continuous monitoring, adjusting feed, servicing of feed equipment, handling, and extensive water testing required to maintain proper water chemistry. The LKC System is self monitoring and requires no maintenance.


Safety is the most feared part of using chemical treatment in water systems. There have been many cases of severely burned hands, arms, and faces of persons handling chemicals. The LKC System requires no chemicals. Places to use: The LKC System can be used in any water system. The places of use range from up to 24" main water intakes, to actually putting the cell into a process water pipe line as small as ½”. The LKC System works in any size water system no matter what the size. Each system is designed to fit the need.


The LKC System requires little room for installation since the entire cell is placed directly into the water line, requiring only electrical service. Continuous Treatment: The LKC system operates automatically, 24 hours a day with no assistance or monitoring.


You can normally own an LKC System for less than it costs to operate a chemical system for one year. OEM Services: Ener-Tec, Inc. maintains a qualified engineering staff experienced in assisting staff engineers in solving their scale control problems.

Companies Trust Ener-Tec to Keep Their Pipes Scale Free

  • Inland Steel
  • LTV Steel
  • Amp Corp.
  • Ebco Metal Finishing
  • Racine Plating
  • Plastics Engineering
  • Asama Foundry
  • Tyco
  • Martin Engineering
  • Viam
  • Koch Materials
  • U.S. Gypsum Co.
  • Braddock Heat Treat
  • Dalton Corp.
  • Cryovac
  • Oxford Automotive
  • Plus thousands more
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